Posts Tagged AeroTEM

EM surveys over Green Giant graphite property in Madagascar

Posted by on Tuesday, 24 February, 2015

by Alexander Prikhodko, 24 Feb., 2015

Graphite mineralization has a high electrical conductivity, which makes it an excellent target for electromagnetic (EM) methods.

Energizer Resources Inc. and it’s predecessors have conducted several airborne and ground electromagnetic  surveys over different areas of Green Giant graphite property in Madagascar (province of Toliara). Different EM technologies have been used in accordance with their progress.

Geological position and characteristics of the property:

Regional position – Ampanihy Shear Zone, NS foliation of rocks;

-Vertical to sub-vertical nature;

-The area is underlain by supracrustal and plutonic rocks deformed with N-NE trending structures;

-Graphitic zones consist of multi-folded graphitic strata;

-Graphitic schist and gneiss with vanadium mineralization.

 Geologic map (magnetic field interpretation)


















AEM surveys covering with different technologies is in the picture above.

The basic AEM surveys results which demonstrate a potential of the territory and effectiveness of the applied methods are below.


DIGHEM survey

Inverted (EMflow, Encom) DIGHEM data. Conductivity 3D voxel, sections and a map.

(conductors in red, resistors blue colors)
























VTEM survey

Time-domain EM TAU parameter calculated with sliding window algorithm picks up the most conductive part of the geoelectrical section on each station-sounding.















The resistivity-depth imaging (RDI) of EM time-domain data is a base of depth positioning of conductors potential for graphite mineralization and the first approximation of their geometry and dimensions.










3D apparent resistivity distribution with <1 Ohm-m clipping areas:



Linking Porphyry Deposit Geology to Geophysics via Physical Properties

Posted by on Tuesday, 7 January, 2014

Geoscience BC Releases the Report:

Linking Porphyry Deposit Geology to Geophysics via Physical Properties: Adding Value to Geoscience BC Geophysical Data
by Dianne Mitchinson, MDRU; R.J. Enkin, GSC; and C.J.R. Hart, MDRU.

Regional geophysical surveys were flown in 2007 and 2008 as part of the QUEST and QUEST-West projects to improve geological understanding in Quaternary sediment-covered areas and thereby encourage mineral exploration. As part of the ongoing process of adding value to Geoscience BC datasets, Project 2009-001, “Integrated Geological & Geophysical Porphyry Models: Adding Value to Geoscience BC Geophysical Data (NTS 93E, 93K, 93L, 93M, 93N)” was undertaken to define relationships between geophysical datasets collected as part of these QUEST surveys and porphyry deposit geology at six known porphyry deposits. The deposits chosen for investigation include: Mount Milligan, Endako, Huckleberry, Bell, Granisle and Morrison. 
Geoscience BC Report 2013-14 presents physical rock property data from the six above-listed BC porphyry deposits, and discusses observed trends within the detailed QUEST and QUEST-West geophysical datasets and mapped geology. The resulting physical rock property data compilation has implications for improving interpretations of geophysical data from porphyry deposits. A synopsis of physical property criteria defining hydrothermally altered or mineralized rocks in BC porphyry settings is provided, which can ultimately be used for ranking similar mineral exploration targets throughout BC, thereby minimizing exploration risk.













Porphyry deposits surveyed during the QUEST and QUEST-West projects include Mount Milligan, Endako, Huckleberry, Bell, Granisle, and Morrison. Airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys (VTEM or AeroTEM) were conducted over each of these deposits. Additionally, a ZTEM (Z-axis tipper electromagnetic) survey was completed over the Mount Milligan deposit as a joint initiative between Geoscience BC and Terrane Metals Corp.

2009 : AeroTem Survey Results from the Equity Silver Mine
– Mineral Exploration Roundup Poster (pdf, 3.96MB)

Technical Article: 2009: “QUEST-West Geophysics in Central British Columbia (NTS 093E, F, G, K, L, M, N, 103I): New Regional Gravity and Helicopter-Borne Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data”
– Summary of Activities 2008, Report 2009-1 p.1-6 (pdf, 4.64MB)






Geophysical Surveys



Technical Article: 2007 : “Airborne electromagnetics and airborne gravity in the QUEST Project area, Williams Lake to Mackenzie, British Columbia (parts of NTS 093A, B, G, H, J, K, N, O; 094C, D)”
– Summary of Activities 2007, Report 2008-1 p.1-6 (pdf, 6.81MB)

Suggested Reference: Mitchinson, D.E., Enkin, R.J., and Hart, C.J.R. (2013): Linking Porphyry Deposit Geology to Geophysics via Physical Properties: Adding Value to Geoscience BC Geophysical Data; Geoscience BC, Report 2013-14, 116 p.

Report Components

Butler Project – Exploration Overview with Geophysics

Posted by on Tuesday, 14 February, 2012

MacDonald Mines Exploration Ltd. provides an exploration update in the mineral-rich Ring of Fire region of the James Bay Lowlands.

MacDonald began exploring in the Ring of Fire starting in 2003, shortly after the first volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) discovery at McFaulds Lake by Spider Resources and KWG Resources. The McFaulds VMS discovery is characterized by very high-grade intersections of VMS mineralization (McF-04-57 intersected 18.8 meters of 8.02% Copper (Cu), Mc-03-18 averaged 4.83% Zinc (Zn) over 25.75 meters) and at 250 meter-plus depths.

Exploration in the James Bay Lowlands is challenging due to the area being almost entirely a wetland. As a result, there is minimal outcrop, helicopter support is required and exploration time lines are longer. Over $18 million dollars has been spent to date on the Butler property and we have discovered six zones of multi-element mineralization with copper-zinc VMS systems, vandiferous titano-magnetite and magmatic nickel sulphide. This was accomplished through comprehensive exploration programs including geophysics, diamond drill holes and geochemistry.

Magnetic map (TF) of the Butler Property showing the location of identified multi-element, mineralized zones.

The lack of outcrop requires that a significant amount of attention and detail has to be paid to the geophysical techniques used in the area. Historically the programs focused on shallow targets; however down-hole surveys, ground magnetic and gravity surveys have indicated that the potential deposit(s) of interest lies deeper in the structural sequence.

A comprehensive suite of geophysical tools has applied at Butler:

Airborne EM, Magnetics & Gravity

  • 2004 VTEM – 2138.9 line kilometers of data were collected
  • 2008 VTEM – 1325.6 line kilometers of data were collected
  • 2010 AeroTEM IV – 261 line kilometers of data were collected
  • 2011 HeliGeoTEM – 261 line kilometers of data were collected
  • OGS/GSC Airborne Gravity Gradiometer

Surface EM

  • Butler 1 – 13 line kilometers of data were collected
  • Butler 3 – 39.3 line kilometers of data were collected
  • Butler 5 – 12.5 line kilometers of data were collected
  • Butler 3, 5, 6, and 7 – 30.17 line kilometers of data were collected

Surface Magnetics

  • 7 Ground Magnetic surveys completed in 2011 covering 81.1 line kilometers

Down hole EM

  • 64 diamond drill holes probed and modeled

The Company is currently enhancing the geophysical model to include the geochemistry data results. Collectively, all of the above geophysical results have consistently shown that an electrically conductive unit with magnetic properties and high density lies below those prospective zones.  These are the characteristics expected from a sulphide rich zone.

Magnetic map (TF) of the Butler 3 area showing the location of the EM target and magnetic susceptibility anomaly

MacDonald’s upcoming drill program will focus on the Butler property: Prior to drilling, the targets will first be refined using a deep penetrating geophysical method, similar to that used to detect the HudBay – Lalor deposit at Snow Lake, Manitoba.

Airborne surveys for uranium in Athabasca Basin

Posted by on Tuesday, 27 September, 2011

Unity Energy Corp.  announces that it has acquired through staking a prospective uranium exploration property known as the Milliken Lake Property. The 1,941 hectare claim lies on the eastern edge of the Athabasca Basin, adjoining to the southeast, UEX’s Hidden Bay and to the west Hathor’s Milliken Creek Project. The project area has seen significant exploration activity, including an Aeroquest AeroTEM III time domain helicopter electromagnetic survey in 2005 (UEX) and boulder prospecting survey (Denison) in 2006. With this acquisition, Unity now controls eight quality uranium exploration projects (27,500 hectares) in the most productive region in the world.

Aeroquest’s Mag/EM survey was successful at detecting a northeast trending moderately conductive anomaly, spanning ~4.5km of the Milliken Lake Project. The Milliken Conductor, which appears to be a subtle anomaly that may represent an alteration zone corresponding with a magnetic low, is the Company’s primary exploration target at Milliken Lake. In 1997, Cameco tested a gravity anomaly in the northern portion of the Project, which was then part of the Park Creek Project. The unconformity was intersected at 97.4m (hole GL-1) and 87.95m (hole GL-2). Neither hole intersected alteration or mineralization; the holes were approximately one kilometer north of the Milliken Conductor.

The Company also covered the Milliken Lake Project in its 2011 VTEM survey; an interpretation on the results should be available in the near term.

Unity Energy Corp. has completed a heliborne VTEM geophysical survey over its Close Lake, Lampin Lake, Hoppy Lake, Kirkpatrick Lake and Dickens Lake projects in the northeastern Athabasca basin and La Ronge gold belt. The survey consisted of about 3,385 line kilometres with 100-metre spacing. Unity is awaiting preliminary interpretation and will use the data to refine target zones.

VTEM is highly effective at locating discrete conductive anomalies, magnetic features extending to the basement. It is also highly effective at mapping lateral and vertical variations in resistivity and is a leading-edge solution for uranium exploration in the basin. VTEM is an evolving technology and this latest generation boasts a higher sensitivity achieved by noise reduction and the optimization of transmitter current waveform, along with dipole-moment increases. The low noise level significantly extends conductance aperture and conductance discrimination.

The Athabasca Basin is an ancient sedimentary basin which hosts the World’s most significant uranium mines and produces almost 30% per cent of the current world uranium production of 108 million pounds U3O8. Athabasca uranium deposits also have grades substantially higher than the world average grade of about 0.2% U3O8. The two dozen or so known uranium deposits within the Athabasca Basin have average grades of more than 3.0% U3O8. The two largest deposits, Cigar Lake and McArthur River have average grades of 20% and 24% U3O8 respectively. The near surface uranium mines in the Cluff Lake mine area produced more than 60 million pounds of uranium with gold as a by-product.

The Athabasca Basin is host to unconformity-associated type Uranium deposits. Mineralization occurs at, above or below the unconformity which separates the Proterozoic Athabasca Sandstone Group from the underlying metamorphosed gneissic rock. Uranium mineralization within the Athabasca Basin is primarily hosted by meta-sediments including pelites and calc-silicates and by sandstone of the Athabasca formation. The pelites are commonly graphitic (free carbon) which may have acted as a chemical reductant, fixing uranium from water circulated by large hydrothermal systems. Some Athabasca uranium deposits are associated with faults and these faults may cause displacements of the basal unconformity.

Large geophysical Survey Project in Afghanistan

Posted by on Monday, 9 May, 2011

Aeroquest International Limited reports that it has been selected by the U.S. Geological Survey to undertake a large airborne geophysical survey in Afghanistan. The work will be done at the request of the Task Force for Business and Stability Operation (TFBSO), U.S. Department of Defense, in connection with the TFSBO 2010 mineral resource assessment for Afghanistan1. Aeroquest and the U.S. Geological Survey will immediately commence negotiation of a definitive contract for provision of the survey. While the parties expect that negotiations will conclude satisfactorily within approximately three weeks, no assurance can be given that the result will be a definitive contract.

The contract under final negotiation is expected to call for Aeroquest to provide a minimum of US$3.0 million and up to US$10.0 million of airborne geophysical services in Afghanistan. Aeroquest expects to mobilize two of its proprietary AeroTEM™ systems to Kabul, Afghanistan, and to start collecting data as soon as possible after execution of the definitive contract. Aeroquest expects to spend approximately 60 days in-country; total revenue under the contract will depend somewhat on whether Aeroquest is able to complete all of the survey in the allotted period. Aeroquest expects to record substantially all of the revenue from this project in fiscal 2011.

The planned survey areas comprise up to six blocks totalling just less than 3,500 square kilometers. Over the course of the surveys, Aeroquest expects to operate out of several bases within Afghanistan. In addition to the work to be completed by Aeroquest personnel, some security and survey support will be provided by the United States Government, organized by the TFSBO.

As surveys will be flown in a zone of active conflict, the Company will be incurring additional costs for security and related support to protect its employees and assets. All precautions recommended by TFSBO, the U.S. Geological Survey and supporting contractors will be taken to ensure that Aeroquest employees remain safe and well-protected during the work.

“We are privileged to have an opportunity to take part in the rebuilding of Afghanistan,” said Roy Graydon, President and CEO, of Aeroquest. “Afghanistan has some of the world’s largest unexploited world-class deposits of gold, copper, iron ore and other minerals, estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey to have a value in excess of US$1 trillion.”

Results of IP Survey at Cache River

Posted by on Saturday, 19 February, 2011

Wolverine Exploration Inc. announces an update to the ongoing exploration program on its Cache River copper-gold property in Labrador.

The final report on the recently completed induced polarization (IP) survey by Abitibi Geophysics has been received and reviewed by Wolverine. The report outlines a number of chargeability anomalies that require follow-up by prospecting and drilling. Some additional IP work is suggested to further outline newly detected targets that are open along strike and extend beyond the survey grids.

The Abitibi report outlines a chargeability anomaly (CR1-01) on Grid One that is located adjacent to an airborne electromagnetic (EM) conductor that was detected from a 2007 AeroTEM survey and is located close to previous drillhole DDC04-10. Further prospecting will be undertaken to establish the strike extent and composition of this combined EM-IP target. The CR1-01 anomaly extends from Line 68,800E to 70,600 on Grid One for a strike length of 1.8 km and is present on 13 of 19 survey lines. A second target CR1-05 is located approximately 650 m north of CR1-01 and extends for a strike length of 1 km as an anomalous chargeability response continuous on 10 of 11 survey lines. CR1-05 is a Priority One target. A third target CR1-06 is located about 150 m south of CR1-05 and extends for a strike length of 1.5 km, also a Priority One target.

On Grid Two are located several chargeability anomalies with high associated resistivity that is more suggestive of bedrock sulphide conductors than overburden. These targets are generally shallow (within 10 – 15 m of surface) and could be targeted by shallow drilling. Anomalies CR2-06 and CR2-07, for example, have strike extents of 1.3 km and 1.0 km respectively and are both Priority One targets. Both anomalies are open to the southwest and extend beyond the survey grid.

Also on Grid Two are a series of chargeability anomalies (CR2-01, CR2-02 and CR2-03) that are located in close proximity to previously discovered malachite showings in rock cuts along the Trans Labrador Highway. These three anomalies could represent copper-carrying sulphide mineralization that has leached out the malachite. These anomalies are all open to the northeast ad have strike lengths ranging from 325 m to 900 m.

The Abitibi report recommends a total of 11 drillholes (or 600 m of drilling) to test the best targets with additional trenching and more IP surveying to fully delineate IP anomalies that remain open along strike or are still unexplained. Ground-checking is recommended prior to drilling to ensure the proposed drill collars can be accessed.

Commenting on the report, Wolverine President & CEO Lee Costerd commented, “The report has identified specific areas that can be directly targeted by drilling. These targets could represent disseminated sulphide carrying copper and gold. This is our target at Cache River and we intend to follow-up with a drill program to test all the targets that have been identified from this survey.”

Wolverine is currently negotiating the drill contract and will plan to test the IP targets as early as March 2011.

Universal HTEM module from Aarhus

Posted by on Wednesday, 3 November, 2010

Aarhus Geophysics announces the release of a general HTEM module that allows complete advanced processing and inversion of virtually every helicopter TEM system on the market today, e.g., VTEM, AeroTEM, HeliTEM. You can now enjoy the full capability of the Aarhus Workbench software for detailed data editing, inversion to smooth and blocky models, results evaluation and display, production of final pdf maps. In true Aarhus Geophysics Aps style, the aim is to go beyond bump anomaly finding, fast approximate transforms or inversions, or any other forms of qualitative appraisal of the AEM data, and to produce quantitative results instead. The aim is to take you … from Data to Knowledge Import your AEM data in the GIS environment of the Aarhus Workbench, describing th e full System Transfer Function, and perform:

-advanced processing of navigation, altimeters and tilt metres data

-decoupling, filtering, and noise assessment of the EM data

-full non linear quasi-3D spatially constrained inversion

-constrained inversion with prior information from boreholes or other geophysics-derived layer boundary

-results evaluation, in terms of Data Residual, Model Parameter Sensitivity, Depth of Investigation

-model display, as horizontal maps in depth and/or elevation, and cross sections

-custom searches of model space and thematic maps, e.g., depth to good conductor.


Posted by on Thursday, 14 October, 2010

Noront Resources Ltd. reports the remaining assay results from the infill drilling program at the Eagle’s Nest deposit at the Company’s McFaulds Lake Project in the James Bay lowlands, Ontario.

Noront’s President and CEO, Wes Hanson, states: “The Company is pleased with the results. Nickel, copper, platinum and palladium grades were higher than expected in the majority of the holes completed. Most of the holes targeted the inferred resource and the Company believes that a large percentage of the inferred resource has been upgraded as a result of this drilling.”

A little bit history about McFaulds Lake:

Airborne Geophysics:

EM+Mag:  2003 Fugro Airborne Survey -> 2007 Noront AeroTEM III Helicopter Survey -> 2008 VTEM Airborne Survey->2009 Z-Axis tipper Electromagnetic Geophysical Survey (ZTEM);

Gravity: 2009 Gravity Gradiometry Airborne Survey

Magnetic+VLF: 2009 High Resolution Aeromagnetic Gradient (HRAM) and VLF-EM Airborne Surveys

Ground Geophysics:

2004 Ground Magnetic and Horizontal Loop EM Survey -> 2006 Condor Diamond Corp In-fill Ground Magnetic Survey -> 2007 Magnetics, HLEM and Gravity Surveys over Eagle’s Nest Deposit -> 2007 Gravity Survey -> 2008-2009 Magnetic, VLF, HLEM, Gravity and Large Loop TDEM Surveys -> 2009 Gravimeter Survey on the Grid 2 Extension.

Airborne Geophysics on Chuchinka Ree Property

Posted by on Tuesday, 28 September, 2010


ELECTRIC METALS INC. announces the completion of an airborne geophysical survey over the Chuchinka Rare Earth Element property.  The Chuchinka property is contiguous with the Wicheeda claims of Spectrum Mining Corporation, who have recently reported high grade drill intercepts of 3.55% rare earth elements (“REE”) over 48.64 metres.

The airborne geophysical program consisted of 650 line kilometres of AeroTEM helicopter-borne time domain electromagnetic plus radiometric surveying flown by Aeroquest Surveys Ltd.  Results of the AeroTEM survey are pending.  AeroTEM surveys have recently been completed by a number of parties exploring for Rare Earth Element mineralization in the vicinity of the Wicheeda project, and offer a cost-effective way to explore this new highly prospective region.

Results of this geophysical survey will be used to direct the ongoing exploration program.

Airborne Geophysical Survey of Coxheath Property

Posted by on Saturday, 21 August, 2010

Silvore Fox Minerals Corp. reports that it has entered into a contract with Aeroquest International Ltd. (“Aeroquest”) to conduct a comprehensive airborne geophysical survey over the Corporation’s flagship Coxheath copper porphyry property in Nova Scotia, Canada. Aeroquest will fly a 462 line-kilometre survey of high resolution Aero TEM IV MAG-TDEM and Radiometrics over areas of interest encompassing the Corporation’s mineral claims at Coxheath.

In addition, the Corporation has also contracted CGI Controlled Geophysics Inc. (“CGI”) to manage this airborne program on behalf of the Corporation. CGI has extensive experience with modern geophysical techniques, data processing, project management and geophysical interpretation.

This phase of the exploration program, as per the Corporation’s Press Release dated May 28th, 2010, is designed to provide new geoscientific information to help further the understanding of the mineral potential of the property. The results of the survey will aid in delineating the potential size and scope of the property’s structural framework and associated copper, gold, silver and molybdenum mineralization. In addition, the survey will provide important information on highly prospective and underexplored areas of the property, including the newly expanded, contiguous mineral rights. Follow-up field-work will focus on ground-truthing the results of this survey and the integrated data will be applied to develop a diamond drilling program that is anticipated to begin in September 2010. The details of the diamond drill program will be released at a later date.

“I am optimistic that the results of this survey will greatly advance our understanding of the geology and mineralization at Coxheath,” states Harry Cabrita, President and CEO. “It will further enhance the efficiency of the exploration program that will have the assessment of economic significance as its primary objective.”

MacDonald Mines Acquires Hornby Properties with promising geophysical data

Posted by on Tuesday, 17 August, 2010

MacDonald Mines Exploration Ltd.  announces that it has finalized an agreement to acquire 100% of the Hornby and Pender Properties, located in the “Ring of Fire” area of the James Bay Lowlands, with Temex Resources Corp. An exploration update follows the agreement details below.

The Hornby Property

MacDonald Mines Hornby Property is located contiguous to the KWG/Spider “Big Daddy” chromite deposit. The Company believes, based on a total review of its airborne survey and historical exploration data, that the Hornby Property has the potential to host the extension of the Big Daddy deposit.

The Property also exhibits prospective volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) (copper, zinc and lead) geophysical targets and is on same stratigraphy as Spider/KWG McFauld’s Lake VMS discovery. Historical drilling in the proximity of this prospective target intersected VMS mineralization.

Exploration Update

As detailed in the Company’s recent press releases, MacDonald Mines has several significant mineral opportunities across multiple properties in the James Bay Lowlands. The spring 2010 drill program consisting of 26 holes, 4,471 meters and focused on the McNugget Property and identified new VMS mineralization of substance on four fold limbs.

A summary of the highlighted drill holes reported were as follows;

Copper (Cu)

  • Hole MN10-102 intersected 1.03% over 15 metres
  • Hole MN10-111 intersected 1.04% over 5 metres
  • Hole MN10-90 intersected 1.11% over 5 metres

Zinc (Zn)

  • Hole MN10-104 intersected 3.3% over 9 metres
  • Hole MN10-106 intersected 2.55% over 4 metres
  • Hole MN10-110 intersected 2.82% over 5 metres
  • Hole MN10-102 intersected 2.5% over 3 metres
  • Hole MN10-104 intersected 2.00% Zn and 0.88% Cu over 6 metres

Silver (Ag)

  • Hole MN10-87 intersected 13.32 g/t over 5.3 metres
  • Hole MN10-94 intersected 16.56 g/t over 4 metres
  • Hole MN10-102 intersected 11.67 g/t over 3 metres
  • Hole MN10-104 intersected 11.97 g/t over 3 metres

Final assays from this last phase of drilling are pending and will be reported once they have been received and reviewed by the Company.

This large VMS system, which is open in all directions and yields VMS mineralization over a potential cumulative strike length of approximately 20 kilometres, was described by consulting geologist Hadyn R. Butler, P.Geo, as potentially being a new VMS camp.

Next Phase of Drilling to Commence Early September With 2 Drills

Crone Geophysics’ down-hole and surface EM system was employed in the previous phases of exploration, assisting in the discovery of the four VMS mineralized fold limbs, and will again be utilized for the upcoming drill program for drill target control.

The Company will continue to operate two drills for this upcoming drill program and will focus on the positive results from its successful spring 2010 drilling program on the McNugget Property.

Targeting Nickel and VMS on McNugget Property


The pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-pyrite mineralization observed in the core of the McNugget property is indicative of VMS mineralization. The pattern of chlorite and sericite alteration, coupled with varying Cu/Zn ratios and alteration index plots from available geochemistry, indicates that there are at least three separate hydrothermal discharge vents/centres found within the same stratigraphic horizon of a large fold complex (McNugget).

Sulphide mineralization observed in drill core generally appears between footwall metasediments and hangingwall felsic volcanics, a lithologic sequence indicative of a Bimodal-Siliciclastic VMS environment.

Based on alteration mineralogy, geochemical vector analysis and 3-D geophysical modelling, it appears that the significant VMS mineralization intersected to date is peripheral to the volcanic centres (sources).

The Company’s current information is pointing to the Fold Nose found on the property as the most immediate prospective appreciable VMS mineralization. A surface and airborne electromagnetic (EM) survey are currently underway on the Fold Nose – and these results will direct the drilling program.


The highest priority nickel target on the McNugget property remains to be in the vicinity of MN07-39. A completion of the airborne magnetic and EM, and Noront Resources’ recent image of the Eagles Nest indicates that the same magnetic horizon extends from the Noront discovery through the McNugget property – adjacent to MN07-39. Prior to further drilling, this area will be investigated further using the following geophysical techniques – VTEM and AeroTEM IV, magnetics, and Crone Geophysics surface and down-hole pulse EM system.