Posts Tagged ZTEM

Factors of Modern Discoveries

Posted by on Wednesday, 8 April, 2015


E&MJ News

Mineral Exploration Strategies

E&MJ News published an article by Steve Fiscor where some factors of new mineral deposits discoveries have been outlined – these factors include applying modern geophysical technologies. The author provides some examples – airborne EM (VTEM, ZTEM), airborne gravity gradiometer, and airborne radiometric surveys which played key role in discoveries of mineral deposits.

“All of the discoveries were in the zone of other major discoveries, but most of them had been overlooked for one reason or another. The motivation could only be attributed to a geologically motivated hunch. New technology in the form of deep-penetrating airborne surveys allowed ground-based geophysical surveys to target undiscovered anomalies. Combining the new information with what they knew historically, exploration geologists were able to improve the drilling programs to quickly determine a resource.”

The next discoveries made with airborne geophysical technologies:

Albany Ultra-pure Graphite – VTEM survey

The Balboa Discovery at Cobre Panama – ZTEM survey

Kennady North Kimberlite Discoveries – airborne gravity gradiometer survey

PLS High Grade, High Techand Contrarian – airborne radiometric survey



Geology For Investors about an airborne EM technology for exploration

Posted by on Monday, 1 December, 2014

Hunting for Giants: An Introduction to ZTEM Surveys in Mineral Exploration
By: Kylie Williams in Exploration Methods











It may just look like an enormous, flying spider web towed behind a helicopter, but the ZTEM airborne geophysical survey system has the potential to identify giant porphyry copper deposits and features of other large ore deposits up to 2000 meters below the surface.
Z‐Tipper Axis Electromagnetic (ZTEM) is an airborne electromagnetic survey system which detects anomalies in the earth’s natural magnetic field. These disruptions are caused by zones of rock that conduct or resist electrical current more than the surrounding rock, like ore deposits. The proprietary technology belongs to Canadian company, Geotech, who have flown over 250,000 line-kilometres with ZTEM in under 4 years.


Geotech Ltd. is a Canadian airborne geophysical survey company that began operations in 1982. The company developed the now well-known VTEM (the versatile time-domain electromagnetic) system in 2002.
The helicopter version of the airborne Z‐Tipper Axis Electromagnetic (ZTEM) system was introduced into commercial service by Geotech in 2006-2007, and the less-expensive fixed-wing (FW ZTEM) system was introduced in 2010-11.

How ZTEM works

ZTEM specifications 300×225 Hunting for Giants: An Introduction to ZTEM Surveys in Mineral Exploration exploration methods ZTEM vtem uranium kimberlite exploration Geotech electromagnetism copper porphyry airborne geophysics
Flying spider web: the airborne loop of the ZTEM system (Geotech)
ZTEM is a type of electromagnetic (EM) survey to measure variations in the electrical properties of rocks.
EM surveys try to identify bodies of rock that conduct electricity well, like massive sulfide bodies of copper or nickel ore, or rocks that resist carrying current more than their surrounds, like the silicic alteration found in the core of porphyry deposits.
ZTEM surveys are different to other commercial EM systems because they measure variations in naturally-occurring EM fields rather than introducing an EM field into the ground and measuring the responding field, like VTEM.
Instead, ZTEM measures variations in the naturally-occurring or passive magnetic fields produced by thunderstorms around the world. This magnetic field is planar – constant in all directions – but areas of highly conductive or very resistive rock will cause measurable disruptions.
ZTEM surveys are designed to map resistivity contrasts to great depths, exceeding 1-2km, making ZTEM well-suited to finding porphyry-hosted and structurally-controlled exploration targets at depth.

What does a ZTEM survey look like?

The ZTEM system is transportable, able to be packed into small units which can be shipped around the world. There are two key pieces of equipment to the system, an airborne loop and ground receivers.
The airborne loops can be towed behind a helicopter or a fixed wing aircraft. The loop itself is a little over 7m across and looks a little like a giant, red-rimmed spider web. It is towed behind the aircraft at a height of around 100m above the ground to measure the vertical component of the magnetic field.
A 75-90m cable attaches the loop to the aircraft. The cable separates the loop from the vibrations of the aircraft and transmits the collected information back to the receivers in the plane or helicopter.
On the ground, base stations are set up in the survey area to measure variations in the horizontal magnetic fields.
GPS receivers are used on the coil in the air and also on the ground to keep track of the orientation of each of the parts, with respect to each other and the earth’s magnetic field.

A few Geotech case studies

Copper-porphyry, Alaska, USA
ZTEM was tested over a section of the world-class Pebble calc-alkalic copper-gold molybdenum porphyry deposit located in the Bristol Bay region of southwest Alaska in 2010. Some of the richest parts of the Pebble deposit are buried under up to 600 m of volcanic and sedimentary cover.
With careful processing, ZTEM was able to identify several of the distinctive alteration haloes found around the porphyry deposits, with more detail at depth than other systems.
ztem pebble Hunting for Giants: An Introduction to ZTEM Surveys in Mineral Exploration exploration methods ZTEM vtem uranium kimberlite exploration Geotech electromagnetism copper porphyry airborne geophysics
2D Resistivity cross-section over Pebble porphyry deposit in Alaska (Geotech)
Uranium deposits, Athabasca Basin, Canada
ZTEM tests were flown over unconformity-type uranium deposits in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, in 2008. The results correlated with known geological features to below 500m depth, penetrating through the thick cover materials to identify defining features in the basement rocks.
Kimberlites, Northwest Territories, Canada
A ZTEM survey flown over the Drybones Kimberlite near Yellowknife in NWT, Canada, was able to differentiate between diatreme (consolidated kimberlite) and the host rock buried under 100m of conductive cover sediments.

Further reading

The best place for information about ZTEM is the Geotech website, especially the ZTEM case study page

Several ZTEM case studies have also been published in peer-reviewed journals, for example:

Integrated airborne geophysics and geologic data interpretation for new Eskay-Creek style deposits

Posted by on Wednesday, 9 April, 2014

Dolly Varden Silver Corporation announces that through recent geoscience modeling and ongoing interpretation, the Company has focused its primary advanced exploration target areas on three corridors within the Dolly Varden property. Work is now being done to prioritize the most prospective drill-ready targets within these corridors. The corridors and targets were chosen for their potential to best expand areas of known high-grade silver mineralization and to identify new Eskay-Creek style precious metals deposits.


 The three targeted corridors are the 1) Torbrit-Red Point Corridor – following known silver mineralization underneath Red Point, an Eskay-Creek style target; 2) Musketeer Corridor – which runs along the east side of the Kitsault river with numerous Ag-rich epithermal vein-type showings with strong potassic radiometric signatures; and 3) Wolf-Surprise Corridor where an Eskay-Creek style host formation containing silver-rich VMS mineralization was identified by the Company’s 2011 drill program.

Through recent modeling and ongoing interpretation, the Company has now moved from kilometer scale targeting to meter scale targeting within these defined corridors. The Company’s technical team is working to delineate specific drill ready targets within these corridors. An aggressive 40 to 50 hole (13,500 meter drill program) is being finalized, subject to financing.
The combination of airborne MAG, VTEM, ZTEM radiometric, and geochemical data, along with geological and structural mapping, was used to define priority target zones. These helped define steep linear features, syngenetic faults, lithologic contacts related to basin formation, and key fluid controlling structures. In addition, key rock units, contact zones and alteration zones most likely to be associated with mineralization, were identified.
This compilation has demonstrated that the known deposits, showings, and related alteration zones are all located within a rift setting. The key rock units that infill the rift have also been identified, and these represent viable targets for Eskay Creek style VMS mineralization. Drilling will be conducted within corridors where mineralized occurrences and coincident alteration haloes point to extensive hydrothermal fluid flow. The key target areas for 2014 drilling include syngenetic VMS-style mineralization and associated feeder structures.

The first airborne EM survey over Tireo gold belt in Dominican Republic

Posted by on Friday, 14 February, 2014

GoldQuest Mining Corp. has commenced flying a helicopter borne ZTEM geophysical survey covering its’ 100% owned Tireo Concessions. The geophysical survey is the first Electro Magnetic survey ever flown over this belt, and will include a high-sensitivity cesium vapour magnetometer for mapping geologic structure and lithology.

 “Results from this survey will complement the PEA underway at our Romero discovery, providing significant newsflow over the next year,” commented Julio Espaillat, GoldQuest’s CEO, “ZTEM has been selected in light of our knowledge gained at the Romero discoveries. This allows us to quickly evaluate the complete area to depths beyond 1 kilometer. We are confident that if there are other similar hydro thermal systems in our large Tireo concession areas, we will identify them with this state-of-the-art system.”

The map link to:

Shows the extent of the ZTEM survey, surrounding our Romero discovery where the maiden technical report describing a multi million ounce gold equivalent resource was filed on December 17, 2013.

Geotech Limited of Canada is flying the ZTEM and magnetometry survey over all of GoldQuest’s concessions in the Tireo Formation, totaling approximately 3,000 line kilometers, at a combination of 100 and 200 meters line spacing. The survey will improve the understanding of the geology and mineral potential along the Tireo trend, and will provide insight into the conductivity, magnetism, alteration and structure of the belt, in light of the Romero discoveries, which will be covered as part of the survey. The data will complement the induced polarization, ground magnetic, mapping and sampling programs which has generally been confined to an area within 5 kilometers of Romero, leaving the majority of the 60 kilometer strike length of the Tireo Concessions unexamined to date. The survey covers areas that have been granted to GoldQuest, and those areas under application.

The Company’s 2014 approved budget for the Tireo Project covers the exploration of the Tireo Formation in the Dominican Republic, and includes this airborne survey, ground follow up and drilling of any anomalies in 2014.


Final ZTEM Survey Results in Guerrero, Mexico

Posted by on Monday, 23 December, 2013

A recently completed ZTEM airborne geophysical survey flown over the Newstrike Capital Inc. Aurea Norte property has successfully identified several high priority anomalies on a parallel trend with its flagship gold deposit at Ana Paula. The survey covered an area known as the San Luis Trend, an important structural corridor over ten kilometres in length that has returned anomalous assays from widespread near-surface gold mineralization.

Preliminary ZTEM results have identified several ‘blind’ exploration targets that coincide with favourable GGB (“Guerrero Gold Belt”) style surface alteration in outcrop that includes iron oxide alteration, jasperoid breccia, silicified intrusion and skarn with associated anomalous gold values. The survey results will be used to focus exploratory drilling along this prospective trend. In addition, several new targets were identified outside this trend that will continue to be investigated as exploration advances,” said Gillian Kearvell, V.P Exploration.

Newstrike Capital Inc. a gold-silver focused explorer, targeting known and historic mining districts in Mexico, is reporting that the final report and interpretation was received from Geotech Ltd. of Aurora, Ontario for the ZTEM airborne geophysical survey flown over the Company’s Aurea Norte property.

Fifteen high priority targets were identified in the report, seven that coincide with anomalous surface gold geochemistry, ranging from weakly anomalous to a best sample of 16.7 grams per tonne gold from outcrop chip samples. A 5,000 metre early stage drill program that will test a selection of these anomalies is now underway. Drilling is expected to take three months to complete and results will be used for planning purposes. Eight of the high priority targets identified in the report represent new exploration targets, a selection of these will be brought to the drill ready phase.

“As explorers, we are very encouraged by the results of this report,” Richard Whittall, CEO, Newstrike Capital commented. “This report has confirmed a number of high priority drill targets based on the strong correlation of previous drilling and surface geochemical results and the imagery from the ZTEM survey. This drill program will be an important first step in evaluating the potential of the San Luis trend.”

The ZTEM survey covered an area known as the San Luis Trend, an important structural corridor over ten kilometres in length that has returned widespread near-surface gold mineralization that coincide with favourable GGB (“Guerrero Gold Belt”) style surface alteration in outcrop, including iron oxide alteration, jasperoid breccia, silicified intrusion and skarn. A selection of assay results over 1.0 grams per tonne gold from outcrop chip sample taken along this trend is presented in the table below. Gold distribution maps and a complete table of gold and pathfinder element assay results from outcrop chip samples are available on the company website at

The objective of the Aurea Norte ZTEM survey was to locate potentially buried intrusive bodies associated with the GGB mineralization model and to identify controlling structures at the Ana Paula deposit and along the mineralized San Luis Trend. The new anomalies identified by the ZTEM survey include resistivity and conductivity contrasts typical of buried silicified intrusions and with alteration commonly associated with skarn-porphyry and epithermal style deposits. Exploration activities are currently focused on advancing the project pipeline around the Company’s flagship Ana Paula project, and include the eastern half of the 59,587 hectare Aurea Norte property. Mapping and surface sampling continue to advance new targets to the drill ready phase.

The Ana Paula project is located internal to and is surrounded by the Aurea Norte property. It is host to a structurally controlled epithermal style gold deposit with a pit constrained resource* of 43.million tonnes that includes 2.20 million ounces of contained gold and 9.7 million ounces of contained silver in all categories at a weighted average grade of 1.56 grams per tonne gold and 7.5 grams per tonne silver (NI-43-101 technical report filed May 8th, 2013, available on the company website or at *(applying cutoff grade of 0.45 grams per tonne gold equivalent (AuEq) defined by the price, cost and recovery assumptions).

Identifying a copper porphyry using EM airborne survey

Posted by on Thursday, 19 December, 2013

Seismic and airborne geophysics for copper project in southeast Arizona

Posted by on Saturday, 14 December, 2013

Millrock Resources Inc. recently completed a seismic geophysical survey and drilling of a single reverse circulation borehole at its Monsoon copper project in southeast Arizona. The survey results and the drill hole indicate that it is unlikely that a large porphyry copper deposit exists within 500 m of surface. The project was the subject of an option agreement with FQM (Akubra) Inc, formerly Inmet Mining Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of First Quantum Minerals Ltd. (“FQML”) whereby FQML may have earned a 70% joint venture interest. FQML has advised Millrock that it will withdraw from the option agreement. Millrock believes there is potential for discovery of a porphyry copper deposit at greater depth and intends to seek a new funding partner to further test the targets developed.

Prior to the recent exploration phase Millrock had carried out property-wide biogeochemical sampling, soil sampling, water well sampling, and airborne ZTEM and magnetic surveys. The work was designed to search for buried porphyry copper deposits along the projected trend of the Safford copper deposits in Laramide-aged rocks that host copper mineralization in the district.

Reprocessing and interpretation of historic seismic data had led Millrock to believe that an upthrown structural block of Laramide-aged rock may be present, and that copper mineralization may exist in the shallow subsurface. A modern 2D seismic reflection survey was carried out to confirm the historic survey in an area where Millrock had discovered polymetallic anomalies in various geochemical surveys. Two lines totaling approximately 17 km were surveyed. Two possible interpretations could be made from the seismic data. One interpretation indicated the favourable Laramide contact was at an approximate depth of 500 m below surface. Another interpretation indicated a depth of approximately 1,000 m.

A vertically-oriented 500 m reverse circulation hole was drilled as a stratigraphic test and to determine the source of the geochemical anomaly. Results of the drilling suggest that an upthrown structural block does exist in the area tested. Tertiary volcanic rock was intersected at only 100 m below surface; a much shallower level than in holes drilled by prior explorers elsewhere on the property. However, the contact with the Laramide aged rocks must lie deeper than 500 m; most likely at an approximate depth of 1,000 m.

The technical information within this document has been reviewed and approved by Gregory A. Beischer, President & CEO of Millrock. Mr. Beischer is a Qualified Person as defined in NI 43-101.

Target: The target at the Monson property is a giant high-grade porphyry copper deposit (± gold and molybdenum). The project is located approximately 50 km (31 mi) south of the Morenci Mine and 50 km (31 mi) southeast of the Safford Mine, both giant porphyry copper deposits actively being mined by Freeport McMoran.

The property is covered by post-mineral Tertiary volcanic rocks or alluvium and remains largely untested for porphyry copper mineralization. Geochemical, geophysical and geologic data, however, suggests potential for the discovery of a buried porphyry copper deposit at Monsoon.

Location and Setting: The Monsoon property is located near Duncan in southeastern Arizona approximately 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Safford, Arizona. Topography varies from moderate to flat. Paved highway 70 passes just east of the property with good access to the property provided by dirt roads.

Geology and Mineralization: The Monsoon property is located southeast of the Safford Mine along the Safford porphyry copper trend as defined by known mineralization at the Safford (Dos Pobres, Lone Star, San Juan and Sanchez), Sol and San Jose porphyry copper properties. Geochemical and geophysical data further defines the Safford trend through the Monsoon property

The project area is covered by post-mineral Tertiary volcanic rocks and alluvium, however geochemical, geophysical and geologic data suggests potential for the presence of a buried porphyry copper deposit. Past drilling is limited to two shallow holes drilled in the 1990’s by Noranda. Neither hole penetrated Laramide-aged basement, drilling only post mineral alluvium. Zones containing anomalous copper and molybdenum values were intersected in both holes. The Laramide-aged geology of the property remains largely unknown and the porphyry copper potential unexplored.

New Exploration Potential at Aurea Norte, Guerrero, Mexico

Posted by on Monday, 23 September, 2013

Newstrike Capital Inc. reports that a recently completed ZTEM airborne geophysical survey flown over the Company’s Aurea Norte property has successfully identified several high priority anomalies on a parallel trend with its flagship gold deposit at Ana Paula. The survey covered an area known as the San Luis Trend, an important structural corridor over ten kilometres in length that has returned anomalous assays from widespread near-surface gold mineralization.

“Preliminary ZTEM results have identified several ‘blind’ exploration targets that coincide with favourable GGB (“Guerrero Gold Belt”) style surface alteration in outcrop that includes iron oxide alteration, jasperoid breccia, silicified intrusion and skarn with associated anomalous gold values. The survey results will be used to focus exploratory drilling along this prospective trend. In addition, several new targets were identified outside this trend that will continue to be investigated as exploration advances,” said Gillian Kearvell, V.P Exploration.

A 5,000 metre exploratory drill program is expected to commence shortly that will complement the exploration activity at Aurea Norte over the past year.

Geotech Ltd of Aurora, Ontario, Canada was contracted to survey approximately 250 square kilometres encompassing 1,298 flight line kilometres flown at a line spacing of 200m. The ZTEM survey is recognized for its ability to map resistivity contrasts associated with the structure and alteration typically associated with porphyry-skarn deposits or with structurally controlled epithermal deposits. ZTEM is capable of penetrating to depths from one to two kilometres and is useful in identifying “blind” exploration targets (a buried target that does not outcrop at surface).

The objective of the Aurea Norte survey was to locate potentially buried intrusive bodies associated with the GGB mineralization model and to confirm controlling structures along the mineralized San Luis Trend. The new anomalies identified by the ZTEM survey include resistivity contrasts typical of buried silicified intrusions and with alteration commonly associated with porphyry-skarn and epithermal style deposits. See the company website for maps from this survey.

Exploration activities are currently focused on advancing the project pipeline around the Company’s flagship Ana Paula project, The Ana Paula project is located internal to and surrounded by the 59,587 hectare Aurea Norte property.

The Ana Paula project is host to a structurally controlled epithermal style gold deposit with a pit constrained resource* of 44.8 million tonnes that includes 2.25 million ounces of contained gold and 10.8 million ounces of contained silver in all categories at a weighted average grade of 1.56 grams per tonne gold and 7.5 grams per tonne silver (NI-43-101 technical report filed May 8th, 2013, available on the company website or at *(applying cutoff grade of 0.45 grams per tonne gold equivalent (AuEq) defined by the price, cost and recovery assumptions).

The mineralization at Ana Paula follows a north trending structural corridor that lies to the west of and is parallel to the San Luis Trend. The deposit at Ana Paula was included in the ZTEM survey area to provide a case study and model for ongoing exploration.

The GGB is an established gold mining district that hosts to skarn and epithermal gold deposits located in a mining friendly jurisdiction that offers ample infrastructure, including roads, power, water and ports of access.

Heliborne EM/magnetic survey over the Newmont Lake Project Area

Posted by on Monday, 23 September, 2013

Romios Gold Resources Inc. announces the completion of a helicopter-borne ZTEM electro-magnetic survey conducted by Geotech Ltd. over its Newmont Lake Project Area, located within the world-class Golden Triangle mineral district of northwestern British Columbia.

The survey covers 359 line kilometres of data along east-west lines, spaced at 300 metres over zones where extensive mineralization has been demonstrated. The ZTEM system provides unparalleled depth penetration in precision electromagnetic measurements. The survey was flown over the Northwest Zone, ’72 Zone, Telena Zone, Ken Zone and the recently discovered “Burgundy Ridge” Zone containing porphyry-related copper and gold-bearing sulphide mineralization extending over 100 metres in elevation along trend of the “72” and “Telena” Zones. (See News Release, September 4, 2013 with pictures of the mineralization on the Burgundy Ridge on the Company’s website, The area is interpreted as one of the principle epicentres for porphyry mineralization throughout the entire Newmont Lake Project Area and is an excellent target for future drill campaigns. Assay results from the grab samples, continuous chip and 84 grid samples from the Burgundy Ridge Zone taken in August will be released when they are received and analyzed.

Processing of the digital data and mapping is expected to take approximately another two weeks to complete. Results will be announced as soon as they are received and the technical review is completed by the Company.

Airborne EM in Colombian Porphyry Gold Copper Project

Posted by on Saturday, 8 December, 2012

Bellhaven Copper & Gold Inc. reports the commencement of the previously announced ZTEM (airborne electro-magnetics) survey over the entire La Mina property (1,800 Ha). The survey is also being extended to include an adjacent concession, which the Company is currently in discussions to acquire. The work is contracted to Geotech Ltd., a Canadian geophysical survey company specializing in leading edge airborne technology. The survey is designed to help refine the targets at La Mina, with a particular emphasis on the Garrucha and Cristalina target areas.

The helicopter-borne geophysical survey will result in approximately 132 line kilometres of data along east-west lines, spaced at 200 metres. The Z-TEM Electromagnetic (EM) system is an innovative technique making use of naturally occurring or passive EM fields from worldwide thunderstorm activity as the source of transmitted energy. The passive source combined with a proprietary receiver design, advanced digital electronics, and signal processing results in low noise levels, exceptional resolution, and unparalleled depth penetration. It has been used successfully to identify and map porphyry style mineral systems from Alaska to Chile.

Patrick Highsmith, Bellhaven’s CEO, commented on the program: “We are pleased to bring the ZTEM technology to the Middle Cauca Belt for the first time. It is a proven technique for porphyries in the Americas. This will enable us to prioritize existing geochemical and magnetics anomalies, including on concessions that we are in negotiations to acquire. This is a very cost effective tool that adds immediate value in an emerging mineral district such as La Mina. By sharing the mobilization and some of the administrative costs with neighboring explorers, we have made it even more cost effective.”

Discussion of ZTEM Survey

The survey is expected to identify conductive and resistive features that are associated with large mineral systems such as gold-copper porphyries from surface to considerable depth. The electromagnetic data is sensitive to sulfide minerals, as well as silicification and clay alteration; all of which are associated with the porphyry and epithermal deposits in the Middle Cauca Belt. This will be an important addition to the magnetics data that drove the initial discoveries. The EM data will advance the geologists’ knowledge of the known resource areas, particularly at depth, but it will also upgrade the targeting arsenal elsewhere on the property. This work will also enhance understanding of large structures in the district. Many of these structures have previously been mapped from both surface exposures and drill intercepts; and the Bellhaven team is focused on their importance in controlling mineralization.

The survey crew arrived on site November 17, and began conducting reconnaissance flights a few days later. They are currently flying the survey as cloud cover permits. It is expected that a total of 6 to 8 days of favorable conditions is needed to complete data collection, so the survey should be completed before the end of December.

La Mina Porphyry Gold Copper Project

La Mina is a resource stage porphyry gold-copper project located in the Middle Cauca volcano-plutonic belt in the Department of Antioquia about 45 km southwest of Medellin. The Middle Cauca belt is known to host large porphyry gold deposits such as AngloGold’s La Colosa Deposit (24 Moz Au) and Sunward Resources’ Titiribi Project (11 Moz Au).

Exploration Targets

The La Mina concession includes almost 2,000 hectares. A number of anomalous features are evident from the initial airborne magnetic survey, completed by AngloGold. As surface sampling and drilling progressed, a number of multi-faceted targets emerged. Through the first half of 2012, a total of four known mineralized porphyry systems have been identified; two of these deposits are host to NI 43-101 compliant inferred mineral resources. The two remaining known porphyries will be the focus of future drilling, meant to advance these prospects to the resource stage as well. The exploration pipeline at La Mina includes a number of other targets that, based on geology, geochemistry and geophysics, have characteristics similar to porphyry or porphyry related deposits. There are at least 7 of these discrete targets undergoing additional work, but they have not yet been drilled. The figure below shows total magnetic intensity (reduced to pole) from an airborne magnetics survey. Many of the targets are identified on this map; and more detailed information is available below.

The EM Test Range in Australia

Posted by on Friday, 12 October, 2012

Southern Geoscience Consultants have released the results of the BH, ground and Airborne EM over the two, discrete and varying bedrock conductors.

The Forrestania EM Test Range is situated approximately 85km by road/track east of Hyden and ~155km by road/track SSE of Southern Cross . The test range is well positioned and provides easy access if traveling from Perth or Kalgoorlie (~4-5hrs).

The Forrestania EM Test Range has been designed to allow testing/trialling of various electromagnetic methods (surface, airborne and downhole techniques) over two, discrete and varying bedrock conductors defined during previous geophysical exploration completed on behalf of Image Resources NL. The two bedrock conductors defined and drilled by Image Resources successfully tested these targets, intersecting barren, semi-massive to massive sulphides (po-rich).
The western conductor (IR2) is of limited areal size (<75x75m), shallow depth <100m, high conductance >7000S and dips northward ~30-40 degrees. This conductor is strongly defined by surface and downhole TEM and makes for an interesting airborne TEM target.

The eastern conductor (IR4) is extensive in strike/plunge extent (~500-600m+) and reasonably well constrained in depth extent (~100-150m). The conductive source is situated at considerable depth ~300-325m (western side) to ~400m+ (eastern side), is highly conductive ~5000-10000S and dips northward ~30-40 degrees. IR4 is a more challenging conductive target for surface TEM methods with smaller transmitter loops.

The local electrical environment is characterized by the presence of a conductive overburden (~10-20S), highly resistive bedrock units and lack of any other bedrock conductors in the immediate area other than the IR2 and IR4.

  • Work Completed at the EM Test Range
    • FLTEM dB/dt and B-Field HT-SQUID coverage over the IR4 bedrock conductor with large and small transmitter loops. FLTEM dB/dt coverage over the IR2 bedrock conductor with large and small transmitter loops. Figure 1 highlights some of these results. Completed as a standard survey by Outer Rim Exploration Services.
    • MLTEM dB/dt and B-Field fluxgate coverage over the IR4 bedrock conductor (200m transmitter loops, Figure 2). – Courtesy of GEM Geophysical Surveys.
    • DHTEM dB/dt – Crone PEM surveys, holes FRC1 and FRCD3 (Figure 3). Completed as a standard survey by Outer Rim Exploration Services.
    • Fixed Loop Total Field (SAMSON) surveying – Figure 4 – courtesy of Khumsup Ltd
    • Helicopter EM surveys – HELITEM (Fugro Airborne Surveys, 2011), VTEM-max (Geotech Airborne Ltd, 2011). An example of the HELITEM and VTEM-max is shown in Figures 56 respectively. Both datasets are available through the contractors only.
    • ZTEM survey by Geotech Airborne Ltd
    • 200m modern aeromagnetic/radiometric data coverage.
  • Proposed Work to be Completed at the EM Test Range
    • MLTEM using SQUID
    • DHTEM B-Field surveying of holes FRC1 and FRCD3 (FRCD3 is now blocked).
  • Download: Figure4_Forrestania-SAMSON.pdf (222.3kb)

    The New Copper Oxide Zone at the Escalones Project in Chile

    Posted by on Wednesday, 19 September, 2012

    South American Silver Corp. announces the results of a 5 hole diamond drilling program and the interpretation of the ZTEM Conductivity and Magnetic geophysical surveys at the Escalones copper-gold project, approximately 100 km southeast of Santiago, Chile and 35 km east of El Teniente, the world’s largest underground copper mine. Escalones, as previously announced and supported by a NI 43-101 technical report, contains a defined Inferred Resource of 420 million tonnes of mineralized material containing 3.8 billion lbs of copper, 56.9 million lbs of molybdenum, 610,000 ozs of gold and 16.8 million ozs of silver using a 0.2% Cu Equivalent cut-off grade (see December 19, 2011 News Release). The detailed NI 43-101 Technical Report is available on SEDAR under the Company’s profile and on the Company’s website at

    The Escalones property lies within the well-known central Chilean porphyry copper belt that runs north-south through Chile in the central Andes Mountains. It is located approximately 100 km southeast of Santiago and 35 kilometers due east of El Teniente, the world’s largest underground copper mine. The project has excellent infrastructure including road access and a gas pipeline that crosses the 70 square kilometer property.

    The Escalones project hosts a four-square-kilometer area of hydrothermal alteration with coincident geophysical anomalies that has demonstrated significant grades of copper, gold and silver in replacement-style “skarn” mineralization hosted in limestones and in porphyry related mineralization.

    Diamond drill hole ES-35, located 300 metres E of ES-24, intersected 71 metres of near surface, oxide copper mineralization averaging 0.64% copper equivalent (“CuEq”). This near surface mineralization correlates with a ZTEM conductivity anomaly which is approximately 500 metres wide and at least one km long. Drill testing, starting when the snow clears in November, will further test this target. ZTEM is a geophysical tool that helps to identify mineralized areas that are conductive.

    Diamond drill hole ES-35 also intersected high grade skarn mineralization at 456 metres intercepting 4.5 metres of copper mineralization averaging 4.32% CuEq within a 9.25 metres zone averaging 2.39% CuEq. A copper skarn is a carbonate rock that has been “cooked” and mineralized by the heat and fluids from nearby copper bearing intrusions. Examples of copper porphyry plus skarn deposits include the well-known Bingham Canyon Mine in Utah and the Twin Buttes Mine in Arizona.

    The skarn at Escalones has now been traced by drilling approximately 1.7 km horizontally and 1.1 km vertically. A large magnetic anomaly is associated with much of the known skarn mineralization and this anomaly extends several hundred meters further to the north of the drilled area, at least 500 meters to the south and approximately 500 metres further east. The anomaly also extends to a depth of several km, many hundreds of metres below the level of current drilling.

    Ralph Fitch, Executive Chairman, stated “This is the first time we have located a good thickness of near surface copper oxide mineralization at Escalones. The importance of this type of mineralization is that it is often the least expensive type of copper to recover because it is typically heap leachable. If future drilling shows that this zone is extensive it will be an important new body of mineralization that is not in the present resource. This new zone combined with that found on the west side of the property in holes ESC-26 (46m@0.53% copper) and ESC-28 (34m@0.52% copper) represents an important part of the mineralized system found to date at Escalones because of its likely low cost leachability. Also, the deep skarn intercept is important, both because of its grade and also because it demonstrates the huge column of copper mineralization present at Escalones which extends from surface to depths of greater than one kilometer. Our upcoming drill program will start to convert this vast column of mineralization into a resource.”

    Upcoming Drilling Campaign

    Up to 30 holes are planned to confirm and expand the resource in the 3 categories reported previously, oxide/sulphide, skarn and porphyry. The results from this drilling will be combined with earlier results and an updated resource will be developed and reported in compliance with NI 43-101.

    The true thickness of the intercepts reported is not known at this time.

    Magnetic susceptibility anomalies are only an indication of the presence of the skarn mineralization and the reader should not assume that “ore grade” mineralization will be intersected.

    ZTEM conductivity anomalies are only an indication of the presence of mineralization and the reader should not assume that “ore grade” mineralization will be intersected.

    Samples were analyzed by Andes Analytical Assay Laboratory located in Santiago, Chile. Gold was analyzed using fire assay and the AA (Atomic Absorption) method while silver, copper, gallium, indium, molybdenum and 38 additional elements were analyzed by ICP AES HF43 method with a four-acid digestion. The copper equivalent has been calculated using the following prices: copper $3.50/lb, gold $1,600/troy oz, silver $30.00/troy oz, molybdenum $11.00/lb, lead $0.90/lb and Zinc $0.90/lb. Values have not been adjusted for metallurgical recoveries.

    Airborne EM for Porphyry Copper-Gold in Papua New Guinea

    Posted by on Thursday, 28 June, 2012
    Goldminex Resources Limited updates on recent exploration activities at the Liamu Project in PNG.
    Goldminex is focused on the discovery of greater than 2Moz gold or gold equivalent deposits in Papua New Guinea and has extensive prospective tenement holdings consisting of Exploration Licences and Exploration Licence Applications covering 10,754km2.
    LIAMU PROJECT (EL 1606) (Goldminex/Vale JV)
    The Liamu Project is located 120km east of Port Moresby within the Owen Stanley Region of PNG. Goldminex’s initial exploration work defined the Liamu intrusive complex and several prospects within it. Vale identified Liamu as a high priority target and moved quickly to commence drilling following the signing of the Farm-in Agreement.
     The Liamu Project has 11 prospects exhibiting surface indications of porphyry copper-gold mineralisation within a 35 km2 area.
     3,292m of a planned 4,000m program have been completed in six holes.
     Prospects drilled include Movei, Nesei, Unebu, Iyiowai and Maoba.
     Low-grade copper mineralisation in Maoba hole MABDH002 developed over a 151m interval from 153m depth including the following intersections;
    o 59m @ 0.16% Cu from 186m to 245m
    o 24m @ 0.21% Cu from 189m to 213m
     Drill results support the potential for Liamu to host a significant copper-gold porphyry system.
     Drill rig remains on site in anticipation of additional drilling in the near term pending results from ongoing investigations.
    Ten prospects have been identified by surface geochemsitry at Liamu to date. These are Nesei, Movei, Tikay, Dada, Unebu and Berefana, all within the 5.5km x 1.5km alteration zone known as the Berefana Region, and Imorobi, Biafa, Bubuafu and Iyiowai to the north and east. An eleventh prospect, known as Maoba, is a ZTEM geophysical survey target.

    A 4,000 metre diamond drilling program commenced in November 2011 has produced encouraging results at the Movei, Nesei, and Unebu Prospects and, in early 2012, a ZTEM geophysical survey was completed over the Liamu and Jog Project areas.
    Maoba Drill Hole – MABDH002

    Hole MABDH002 at the Maoba Prospect targeted coincident strong conductor and magnetic anomalies identified by a ZTEM survey completed in January 2012.
    ZTEM conductor beneath surface topography showing the trace for MABDH002.
    Assay results have been received for the majority of the hole and include the following:
     59 metres @ 0.16% Cu from 186 metres
     24 metres @ 0.21% Cu from 189 metres
    The lithology of the above zone was a medium grained pale grey – green, intermediate volcaniclastic unit. Within this volcanic unit were moderately dark grey un-mineralised shoshonitic dykes. The volcaniclastic contains polymict crackle and fluidised, milled breccia zones throughout, Plate 2. Clasts within the breccia were uniformally barren with very fine grained sulphides present in the matrix. Alteration was mainly chlorite – silica – magnetite with areas of intense clay alteration.

    Complex Airborne EM Geophysical Surveys on Creston BC

    Posted by on Wednesday, 22 February, 2012

    Eagle Plains/Providence Identify 3 High-Priority Drill Targets from 2011 Airborne EM Geophysical Surveys

    Eagle Plains Resources Ltd. and Providence Resources Corp. announces receipt of results from airborne geophysical field surveys carried out over their Iron Range JV project located near Creston British Columbia. During October-November 2011, Geotech Ltd. carried out VTEM time-domain EM and ZTEM AFMAG surveys over parts of the Iron Range Project. The results have subsequently been processed and interpreted by Condor Consulting, Inc. of Lakewood Colorado.


    440 line-km of airborne geophysical data has been collected over the Property area during 2011.
    3 high-priority VTEM electromagnetic geophysical anomalies have been delineated in the Row target area, and are coincident with a 5km-long arsenic, zinc and lead soil geochemical anomaly.
    The ZTEM survey successfully identified the Iron Range Fault as well as a northeast-trending fault similar in orientation to the gold-bearing faults at the Talon Zone.

    “Geophysical data collected on the Iron Range Project has produced three high priority EM conductors that coincide with lead, zinc and arsenic geochemical anomalies on the Row Target Area.” Stated Providence Resources Corp.’s President and CEO Vince Sorace. “The combined results from the geophysical surveys have fine-tuned the Iron Range geological model and increased our confidence in the Row Target area which will be drill-tested upon receipt of applicable permits, which are expected by Q2, 2012.”

    Geophysical Survey Results

    VTEM time domain-EM
    A total of 7 anomalies were defined from the VTEM survey; see Anomalies 1-3 represent high-priority EM anomalies and are located within and immediately adjacent to a ~5 kilometer-long lead-zinc-arsenic soil anomaly situated in prospective middle Aldridge Formation sedimentary rocks. These three anomalies may be an indication of subsurface Sullivan style lead-zinc-silver mineralization and will be drill tested in Spring, 2012. Anomalies 4 to 7 represent secondary priority targets and are likely related to the subsurface geology. Anomaly 4 is a broad, low level conductor associated with a magnetic contact and is interpreted to represent a near-surface bedrock anomaly or conductive overburden. Anomaly 5 is a formational anomaly defined by coincident EM and magnetic anomalies which correspond to the location of a sliver of upper Aldridge Formation sedimentary rocks. Anomaly 6 is a broad, northeast trending conductive zone associated with a linear, northeast trending magnetic anomaly. Drilling done in this area indicates that the anomaly is related to graphite within the Aldridge Formation sedimentary rocks. Anomaly 7 is interpreted to be an artifact that is related to a power line that transects this portion of the VTEM survey.

    ZTEM AFMAG Survey
    The ZTEM orientation survey was conducted over the Canyon Target (Talon Zone) to determine whether this geophysical method would be capable of mapping bedrock geology based upon the known resistivity and magnetic susceptibility contrasts within the Aldridge sedimentary rocks; see The survey successfully identified the Iron Range Fault as well as a northeast-trending fault similar in orientation to the gold-bearing faults at the Talon Zone. In addition, the survey identified the broad conductive zone also detected by the VTEM survey. This information is useful in better understanding the subsurface geology of the Iron Range area and how known target areas relate to major rock units and structures.

    Exploration Focus

    Ongoing work by Eagle Plains Resources Ltd. is focused on exploring the potential of the Iron Range fault zone and surrounding area as a conduit and host for both sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization and Iron-oxide-Cu-Au (IOCG) mineralization.

    2012 Exploration Program
    The Company intends to execute a full exploration program beginning in March, 2012 (subject to receipt of permits) with the objective of systematically evaluating all existing exploration data, utilizing newly acquired geophysical data, field evaluating all resulting anomalies and ultimately drill testing the highest priority targets.

    Geophysical gravity survey – it is anticipated that results from this work will be available in March, 2012.
    Winter drilling (Phase I) of high-priority geophysical and geochemical anomalies. High priority targets have been identified during the evaluation of historical geochemistry, 2011 soil geochemical surveys, and 2011 airborne geophysical data. Additional targets are anticipated.
    Field work will be completed in summer 2012 with the objective of bringing remaining targets to the drill testing stage for Phase II drilling in late 2012.

    Airborne geophysics over the Symphony Property

    Posted by on Thursday, 22 September, 2011

    BonTerra Resources Inc. Fugro Airborne Surveys has commenced an aeroelectromagnetic survey over the entire Symphony Property (the “Property”). The Property is situated in the Omineca mining division approximately 29 kilometres southwest of Houston, British Columbia.  BonTerra recently staked additional claims to consolidate its land position situated in between the Silver Queen Mine to the south and the Silver Streak property to the north.

    Directly bordering the Property to the south is the past producing Silver Queen Mine. Historical ore grades are 8.72 opt (299 grams / tonne) silver, 0.18 opt (6.17 g/t) gold, 6.73% zinc, 1.16% lead, and 0.47% copper.

    The Silver Queen property is currently being advanced by New Nadina Explorations. New Nadina has intersected silver, gold and base metal mineralization on the property. They have completed an aeromagnetic and ZTEM survey, a titan geophysical survey and diamond drilling. Drilling revealed grades of up to 493.5 g/t silver, 5.06 g/t gold, 13.5% zinc, 6% lead and 2.88% copper. The mineralized trend has a general southeast to northwest trend, the direction towards which the Property is situated.

    General Location Map:

    The Silver Streak property is situated to the north of the Property. Trenching on the Silver Streak identified significant mineralization which included 1.99% Cu and 338 g/t Ag over 33 meters. An inclined diamond drill hole was drilled underneath this trench in 1991. A zone grading 8.8 meters of 0.49% copper and 258 g/t silver, within 21.1 meters averaging 0.27% copper and 127 g/t silver was discovered. Another trench excavated in 2002 graded 0.26% copper and 1.91 g/t Ag over 16.7 meters. The mineralized zone is believed to have a NW-SE strike, the general direction of the Property.

    This DIGHEM Electromagnetic survey with optional Radiometrics will total 308 line kilometres of readings. DIGHEM records electromagnetic data which can be interpreted to show changes in bedrock geology to great depth. The system uses multiple frequency electromagnetic fields to measure and map electrical conductivity in three dimensions. The DIGHEM EM system provides the interpretation benefits that can only be realized by a system employing both horizontal coplanar and vertical coaxial transmitter-receiver coil-pairs. BonTerra has selected Fugro’s optional Radiometrics application for an effective geological mapping solution as part of this mineral exploration program. The Company plans on using this survey to identify additional targets of interest on the property in its evaluation for silver and base metal mineralization potential on the Property.

    3D Exploration Models for Targeting New Uranium Deposits in the Athabasca Basin

    Posted by on Saturday, 2 July, 2011

    JNR Resources Inc. reports that it is continuing to develop 3D exploration models to target new uranium deposits on its properties in the Athabasca Basin. JNR is a Saskatoon-based junior exploration company with one of the strongest technical teams in the uranium exploration industry. The Company is focused on uranium exploration in the Athabasca Basin of Saskatchewan and the Deer Lake Basin and Topsails igneous complex of west-central Newfoundland. These regions represent distinct uranium provinces that are characterized by significant uranium enrichment in many of the rock formations. JNR firmly believes that the best exploration approach is through actively exploring on the ground and drilling high-priority targets based on geology, geophysics, and geochemistry.

    JNR is one of several uranium exploration companies that is using leading-edge exploration methods and tools in the Athabasca Basin to better understand mineralization processes/criteria for discovering new resources. These methods and tools include PIMA analyses, Pb isotope analyses, APS mineral analyses, 3D GOCAD modeling via a data- and/or knowledge-driven approach, numerical and/or geostatistical modeling, and high-resolution 2D/3D airborne and ground geophysical surveys, including high-resolution airborne gravity (FTG) and electromagnetic (ZTEM) surveys. In this respect, the Company is taking full advantage of the capabilities and expertise of its experienced, multi-disciplinary geological team.

    Over the last 20 years, mineral exploration has evolved into a more rigorous quantitative science. A significant part of this exploration science includes a 3D GIS environment in which rich archives of diverse exploration data sets can be integrated, analyzed, and interpreted for the purpose of targeting new ore deposits.  Building these 3D common earth models using the GOCAD environment/software appears to be a very efficient and effective tool for characterizing and exploiting the regional-, district- to mine-scale 3D common earth models of ore deposits and for determining the complex processes that produced the economic mineralization. For example, the complex spatial and geological relationships between lithological units, geological structures, geochemical data, alteration data, and geophysical data can be studied in detail. As well, a wealth of knowledge of ore-forming processes can be integrated into and queried by what-if scenarios within the geostatistical module of the GOCAD environment.

    Results to date (2005 – present) from JNR’s 3D GOCAD models (e.g. eastern Athabasca, Way Lake, Yurchison Lake, Moore Lake, and Snowbird/South Dufferin) indicate that we have a much better understanding of the geological environments that we are exploring in and from this we can successfully pick new lithostructural/geochemical/geophysical drill targets in the search for new uranium resources. Ultimately, this will lead to finding new uranium deposits in less time.

    In summary, when applied by experienced, multi-disciplinary exploration teams, this data- and/or knowledge-driven mineral potential modeling approach has great potential to enhance greenfield to brownfield mineral exploration activities within all uranium provinces. JNR will next put this to test by drilling some new discoveries along the eastern and southern margin of the Athabasca Basin (e.g. Snowbird/South Dufferin and Lazy Edward Bay).

    Dave Billard, Vice President Exploration and Chief Operating Officer comments; “State-of-the-art, science-based exploration techniques are integral to our ongoing and planned exploration programs. For example, we have been able to define superior targets at shallow depths on our South Dufferin/Snowbird projects, which we plan to drill this summer. We believe these targets are lithostructurally related to the Centennial deposit (Cameco Corporation/Formation Metals Inc.) located approximately 20 km northeast and on strike of our properties. At Centennial, a 650-m long mineralized zone grading up to 8.78% U3O8 over 33.9 m has been outlined at approximately 800 m depth (Formation Metals news release May 30, 2011)”.

    All technical information for the Company’s exploration projects is obtained and reported under a formal quality assurance and quality control program, details of which are presented on the Company’s website at: A glossary of the technical terms included in this release can be found on the Company’s website at:

    Deep penetrating geophysical survey in Mexico

    Posted by on Saturday, 4 June, 2011

    Canasil Resources Inc.  announces that results from the recently completed ZTEM airborne geophysical surveys have outlined encouraging targets at the Company’s 100% owned Salamandra and Victoria projects in Durango State, Mexico. The ZTEM geophysical surveys at both projects have highlighted well developed structures which are possible locations for structurally controlled mineralization. These areas exhibit complex electromagnetic and magnetic signatures, which have the characteristics associated with intrusive sources, and are coincident with prospective local geology and geochemical surface anomalies defined by prior surface mapping, sampling and drill programs. These combined features have defined large targets for further exploration. A summary of the results at each project is included below for reference.

    Bahman Yamini, President of Canasil, commented: “We are very pleased to see clearly defined and prominent geophysical signatures from the ZTEM surveys at Salamandra and Victoria projects. These provide significant high potential targets for follow up at these two large projects, both strategically located close to the city of Durango in a highly prospective mineralized belt in Durango and Zacatecas States, Mexico, hosting major silver and base metal mines. We look forward to further exploration programs to advance these projects.”

    Salamandra Project:

    The recently completed ZTEM geophysical survey on the Salamandra Silver-Zinc project in Durango State, Mexico, has outlined a large complex area, measuring 2.5 km by 3.0 km, with low resistivity and flat magnetic response, interpreted to be an intrusive source. This is located east of and flanking the previously drilled Salamandra mineralized zone. The interpreted intrusive source is bounded by a north trending large regional fault on the east, and crosscut by several east–west fault zones. According to Frank Fritz, Canasil’s consulting geophysicist: “these are favourable locations for structurally controlled mineralization”.

    Previous drilling on the western flank of the interpreted intrusive source intersected wide zones of calc-silicate skarn with disseminated silver-zinc mineralization, averaging 0.5% – 1.0% zinc and 5 g/t – 20 g/t silver, and  high-grade silver-zinc sulphide filled structurally controlled breccia zones grading up to 20% zinc and 300 g/t silver.

    The interpreted intrusive source outlined by the ZTEM survey is alluvium covered and has not been drill tested. There is excellent potential in this area to outline disseminated mantle replacement or high-grade breccia associated silver, zinc and copper mineralization related to acid quartz porphyry intrusives, similar to the large San Martin mine of Grupo Mexico, located 80 km to the southeast. Follow up surface mapping, geochemical and ground geophysical surveys are planned to further explore this high potential target.

    Victoria Project:

    The deep penetrating ZTEM geophysical survey on the Victoria project, located 25 km northeast of the Salamandra project, has outlined a target similar to that seen at Salamandra. The ZTEM survey has outlined an area of complex low resistivity and low magnetic response measuring 2.0 km by 2.5 km, indicating a large intrusive source at depth. Numerous zones with small workings of oxidized sulphides with anomalous lead, zinc, gold, arsenic and antimony are observed at surface associated with silicified and skarn altered sediments and small intrusives located immediately north, east and west of the outlined geophysical target. Several strong northeast and east-west trending shear structures are present similar to the Salamandra project target.  The geophysical target outlined at the Victoria project has the potential to be a large massive sulphide skarn mantle mineralized system similar to the San Martin base metal mine of Grupo Mexico located 80 km to the southeast. A follow up program of geological mapping, rock and silt sampling and ground geophysics is planned.

    The ZTEM airborne geophysical surveys were conducted by Geotech Ltd. The data was processed and provided by Geotech Ltd. The interpretations of the geophysical data were carried out by Frank Fritz, consulting geophysicist, and Gary Nordin, P. Geo., Director of Canasil and a qualified person under NI43-101. The surveys were flown with 10 km line length with a spacing of 200 metres. The Salamandra survey covered 617 line-kilometres over an area of approximately 120 square kilometers. The Victoria survey covered 680 line-kilometres over an area of approximately 130 square kilometers.

    The Salamandra project is located 35 kilometres to the northeast of the city of Durango and covers 14,719 hectares, over 140 square kilometres. This large claim area is strategically located within the major silver-gold trend running through Durango and Zacatecas States, and is directly on trend with a number of important operating mines and recent discoveries. The project benefits from excellent access and infrastructure for mineral exploration and development. Prior geophysics and diamond drilling completed by Canasil has identified significant zinc-silver mineralization at Salamandra, with preliminary metallurgical tests showing high zinc and silver recoveries to clean concentrates. The project is located on the mineral-rich Fresnillo geologic trend, approximately 80 km northwest of the San Martin mine of Grupo Mexico, which is the largest underground zinc-copper-silver mining operation in Mexico, producing at approximately 6,000 tonnes per day.

    The Victoria project covers a large prospective area of 60,000 hectares, 600 square kilometers, located 60 km northeast of the City of Durango and 25 km northeast of the Salamandra project. The project is centrally located on the same mineral rich trend, stretching from the northwest to the southeast through Durango and Zacatecas States, with excellent access and infrastructure. Initial reconnaissance, including geologic mapping and surface sampling by Canasil in the Victoria project area, has outlined prospective target zones, which were tested by the ZTEM survey. Located on a major mineralized trend, the very large project area is highly prospective for discovery of new mineralized systems.