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Vedanta has been interpreted as the “last chapters, parts of the Veda ” and alternatively as “object, the highest purpose of the Veda”. More than Upanishads are upanishacs, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main mukhya Upanishads.
The early Upanishads all predate the Common Era, five [note 6] of them in all likelihood pre-Buddhist 6th century BCE down to the Maurya period. With the translation of the Upanishads in the malayakam 19th century they also started to attract attention from a western audience. Arthur Schopenhauer was deeply impressed by the Upanishads and called it “the production of the highest human wisdom”. Monier-Williams malayalxm Sanskrit Dictionary notes — “According to native authorities, Upanishad means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit.
The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in first chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad. The authorship of most Upanishads is uncertain and unknown. Radhakrishnan states, “almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads”. The various philosophical theories in the early Upanishads have been attributed to famous sages such as YajnavalkyaUddalaka AruniShvetaketuShandilyaAitareya, Balaki, Pippaladaand Sanatkumara.
The Malayakam Upanishadfor example, includes closing credits to sage Shvetashvataraand he is considered the author of the Upanishad. Many scholars believe that early Upanishads were interpolated  and expanded over time. There are differences within manuscripts of the same Upanishad discovered in different parts of South Asia, differences in non-Sanskrit version of the texts that have survived, and differences within each text in terms of meter,  style, grammar and structure.
Makayalam are uncertain about when the Upanishads were composed. Indologist Patrick Olivelle says that “in spite of claims made by some, in reality, any dating of these documents [early Upanishads] that attempts a precision closer than a few centuries is as stable as a upanshads of cards”.
Patrick Olivelle gives the following chronology for uppanishads early Upanishads, also called the Principal Upanishads: The later Upanishads, numbering about 95, also called minor Upanishads, are dated from the late 1st-millennium BCE to mid 2nd-millennium CE.
The general area of the composition of upanisyads early Upanishads is considered as northern India. The region is bounded on the west by the upper Indus valley, on the east by lower Ganges region, on the north by the Himalayan foothills, and on the south by the Vindhya mountain range.
While significant attempts have been made recently to identify the exact locations of the individual Upanishads, upanisnads results are tentative. Witzel identifies the center of activity in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad as the area of Videha, whose king, Janaka, features prominently in the Upanishad. Some of the Upanishads are categorized as “sectarian” since they present their ideas through a particular god or goddess maalayalam a specific Hindu tradition such as Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, or a combination of these such as the Skanda Upanishad.
The Mukhya Upanishads can be grouped into periods. Of the early periods are the Brihadaranyaka and the Malxyalamthe oldest. One chronology assumes that the Aitareya, Taittiriya, Kausitaki, Mundaka, Prasnaand Katha Ma,ayalam has Buddha’s influence, and is consequently placed after the 5th century BCE, while another proposal questions this assumption and dates it independent of Buddha’s date of birth.
After these Principal Upanishads are typically placed the Kena, Mandukya and Isa Upanishadsbut other scholars date these differently. Each of the principal Upanishads can be associated with one of the schools of exegesis of the four Vedas shakhas. The new Upanishads often have little relation to the Vedic corpus and have not been cited or commented upon by any great Vedanta philosopher: As a result, they are not difficult to comprehend for the modern reader.
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There is no fixed list of the Upanishads as newer ones, beyond the Muktika anthology of Upanishads, have continued to be discovered and composed. Ancient Upanishads have long enjoyed a revered position in Hindu traditions, and authors of numerous sectarian texts have tried to benefit from this reputation by naming their texts as Upanishads.
The main Shakta Upanishads, for example, mostly discuss doctrinal and interpretative differences between mmalayalam two principal sects of a major Tantric form of Shaktism called Shri Vidya upasana. Sectarian texts such as these do not enjoy status as shruti and thus the authority of the new Upanishads as scripture is not accepted in Hinduism.
All Upanishads are associated upanshads one of the four Vedas— UanishadsSamavedaYajurveda there are two primary versions or Samhitas of the Yajurveda: Shukla YajurvedaKrishna Yajurvedaand Atharvaveda. In south India, the collected list based on Muktika Upanishad, [note 8] and published in Telugu languagebecame the most common by the 19th-century and this is a list of Upanishads.
The Upanishadic age was characterized by a pluralism of worldviews. While some Upanishads have been deemed ‘monistic’, others, including the Katha Upanishadare dualistic. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan states that the Upanishads have dominated Indian philosophy, religion and life ever since their appearance. The Upanishads include sections on philosophical theories that have been at the foundation of Indian traditions. For example, the Chandogya Upanishad includes one of the upnishads known declaration maoayalam Ahimsa non-violence as an ethical precept.
While the hymns of the Vedas emphasize rituals and the Brahmanas serve as a liturgical manual for those Malayalsm rituals, the spirit of the Upanishads is inherently opposed to ritual. Anyone who worships a divinity other than the self is called a domestic animal of upaniahads gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The Kaushitaki Upanishad asserts that “external rituals such as Agnihotram offered in the morning and in the evening, must be replaced with inner Agnihotram, the ritual of introspection”, and that “not rituals, but knowledge should be one’s pursuit”.
The performance of all the sacrifices, described in the Maitrayana-Brahmana, is to lead up in the end to a knowledge of Brahman, to prepare a man for meditation. Therefore, let such man, after he has laid those fires,  meditate on the Self, to become complete and perfect. The opposition to the ritual is not explicit in the oldest Upanishads.
On occasions, the Upanishads extend the task of the Aranyakas by making the ritual allegorical and giving it a philosophical meaning. For example, the Brihadaranyaka interprets the practice of horse-sacrifice or ashvamedha allegorically. It states that the over-lordship of the earth may be acquired by sacrificing a horse. It then goes on to say that spiritual autonomy can only be achieved by renouncing the universe which is conceived in the image of a horse.
In similar fashion, Vedic gods such as the AgniAdityaIndraRudraVisnuBrahmaand others become equated in the Upanishads to the supreme, immortal, and incorporeal Brahman-Atman of the Upansihads, god becomes synonymous with self, and is declared to be everywhere, inmost being of each human being and within every living creature.
According to Jayatilleke, the thinkers of Upanishadic texts can be grouped into two categories. The second group includes maalyalam middle and later Upanishads, where their authors professed theories based on yoga and personal experiences.
Two concepts that are of paramount importance in the Upanishads are Brahman and Atman. Brahman in Hinduism, states Paul Deussenas the “creative principle which lies realized in the whole world”. The word Atman upanishdas the inner self, the soul, the immortal spirit in an individual, and all living beings including animals and trees. Atman is that which one is at the deepest level of one’s existence.
Atman is the predominantly discussed topic in the Upanishads, but they express two distinct, somewhat divergent themes.
According to Nakamura, the Brahman sutras see Atman and Brahman as both different and not-different, a point of view which came to be called bhedabheda in later times. Two different types of the non-dual Brahman-Atman are presented in the Upanishads, according to Mahadevan.
The one in which the non-dual Brahman-Atman is the all inclusive ground of the universe and another in which empirical, changing reality is an appearance Maya. The Upanishads refer to the knowledge of Atman as “true knowledge” Vidyaand the knowledge of Maya as “not true knowledge” AvidyaNescience, lack of awareness, lack of true knowledge.
Hendrick Vroom explains, “the term Maya [in the Upanishads] has been translated as ‘illusion,’ but then it does not concern normal illusion. Here ‘illusion’ does not mean that the world is not real and simply a figment of the human imagination. Maya means that the world is not as it seems; the world that one experiences is misleading as far as its true nature is concerned. The Upanishads form one of the three main sources for all schools of Vedanta, together with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutras.
Advaita literally means non-duality, and it is a monistic system of thought. Advaita is considered the most influential sub-school of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. Shankara in his discussions of the Advaita Vedanta philosophy referred to the early Upanishads to explain the key difference between Hinduism and Buddhism, stating that Hinduism asserts that Atman soul, self exists, whereas Buddhism asserts that there is no soul, no self.
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Although there are a wide variety of philosophical positions propounded in the Upanishads, commentators since Adi Shankara have usually followed him in seeing idealist monism as the dominant force. Sri Ramanuja disagreed with Adi Shankara and the Advaita school. Sri Ramanuja’s Vishishtadvaita interpretation of the Upanishad is a qualified monism.
In the Vishishtadvaita school, the Upanishads are interpreted to be teaching an Ishwar Vishnuwhich is the seat of all malayakam qualities, with all of the empirically perceived world as the body of God who dwells in everything. This malayapam leads one to the oneness with abstract Brahman. According to the Dvaita school, states Fowler, the “Upanishads that speak of the soul as Brahman, speak of resemblance and not identity”.
This to the Dvaita school implies duality and dependence, where Brahman and Atman are different realities. Brahman is a separate, independent and supreme reality in the Upanishads, Atman only resembles the Brahman in limited, inferior, dependent manner according to Madhvacharya.
Sri Ramanuja’s Vishishtadvaita school and Shankara’s Advaita school are both nondualism Vedanta schools,  both are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvacharya believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned.
Several scholars have recognised parallels between the philosophy of Pythagoras and Plato and that of the Upanishads, including their ideas on sources of knowledgeconcept of justice and path to salvation, and Plato’s allegory of the cave. Platonic psychology with its divisions of reason, spirit and appetite, also bears resemblance to the three gunas in the Indian philosophy of Samkhya. Various mechanisms for such malzyalam transmission of knowledge have been conjectured including Pythagoras traveling as far as India; Indian philosophers visiting Athens and meeting Socrates ; Plato encountering the ideas when in exile in Syracuse; or, intermediated through Persia.
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However, other scholars, such as Arthur Berriedale KeithJ. Wadiabelieve that the two systems developed independently. They note that there is no historical evidence of the philosophers of the two schools meeting, and point out significant differences in the stage of development, orientation and goals of the two philosophical systems. Wadia writes that Plato’s metaphysics were rooted in this life and his primary aim was to develop an ideal state.
Anquetil Duperrona French Orientalist received a manuscript of the Oupanekhat and translated the Persian version into French and Latin, publishing the Latin translation in two volumes in — as Oupneck’hat. The first Sanskrit to English translation of the Aitareya Upanishad was made by Colebrooke in and the first English translation of the Kena Upanishad was made by Rammohun Roy in The first German translation appeared in and Roer’s English version appeared in However, Max Mueller’s and editions were the first systematic English treatment to include the 12 Principal Upanishads.
Ramanujan Book Prize for Translation. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer read the Latin translation and praised the Upanishads in his main work, The World as Will and Representationas well as in his Parerga and Paralipomena For Schopenhauer, malaualam fundamentally real underlying unity is what we know in ourselves as “will”.
Schopenhauer used to keep a copy of the Latin Oupnekhet by his side and commented. It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my death.
Another German philosopher, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schellingpraised the ideas in the Upanishads,  as did others.
Americans, such as Emerson and Thoreau embraced Schelling’s interpretation of Kant ‘s Transcendental idealismupanishafs well as his celebration of the romantic, exotic, mystical aspect of the Upanishads. As a result of the influence of these writers, the Upanishads gained renown in Western countries.
Eliotinspired by his reading of the Upanishads, based the final portion of his famous poem The Waste Land upon one of its verses.