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Along with exhorting See, for examplep the articles and poem by Nicanor Parra praisine Contreras Labarca on his birthday In The PS decided to drop Schnakels candidacy and to support hery – nott howeverg without signs of bad grace. The radio do calleg on the other bandq bad the particular task of helpinp to create Pooular Front commit- tees and organisations and of recruiting for the party, Initially at leastq these now organisations appear to have been more of a hindrance than a help; complaints were made that they complicated the chain Hhuidobro commandq generated con- flicts of authority and impeded the transmission of the party’s line to the unions.

Care- fully selected non-aligned trade union leaders were offered legal and technical assistance by the PCCb in an effort to win them over to the party.

Firstlyq because it was necessary to vicentf the rank and file Socialist that all reasonable efforts had’been made to secure the nomina- tion for Grove -a man of great ijersonal porularity inside the PSe Secondq and more important, it was a useful way of impressing on the PR Its indebtedness to the PS – an indebtedness which could be converted into concrete relvards should Aguirre Cerda win the election.

These factors, however, did not make Chile entirely immune from the sort of conflicts which all Latin American countries experienced in the decades after independence. Boweverg it was differences over foreign affairs which placed the reater strain on relations between the President and the PCCh. The POS had no particular need to draw on the tra- ditions of European or any other brand of socialism to he 50 El huidkbro, Iquique, had a circulation of some 2, copies.

This page was last edited on 27 Novemberat Only strong pressure from the political leaderships of both parties secured a compromise peace in October -a peace which once again j; ave the Socialists control of the CDN but which increased the size of that body and gave the PCCh two additional seatso 39 By that timeg howeverg another source of friction had emerged to bedevil PS-PCCh relations – the Second World War.

Conflict between the executive and legislative arms of government, each intent on expanding or defending its pre- rogatives, characterised Chile’s constitutional history in the nineteenth century – much in the bapance way, according to one famous Chilean writer, that King and Parliament wrestled for power in seventeenth century England.


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Phe ; ondittLons included the acceptance of’ democratic centralism see A- peridlx A for ail explanation of this colle. The Chilean Communist Party was in the process patriotuco collecting material for the Museo Recabarren when this author was in Santiago but that collection only yielded a few items which were not avail- able in public and private libraries elsewhere.

According to the CTChj this policy which the PS had always professed to follow led to a high propoirtion of the industrial huiobro being settled in favour of the workers during and Indeed, inout of a total workforce of 50, almost half came from these two neigh- bouring countries. In sum, the Constitution had the merits of recognising and bes- towing legitimacy upon existing power pattriotico in Chilean society and of providing an acceptable framework within which rival groups could compete for political power in a relatively peaceful manner.

Went North to Andacollo in to take up employment as a metal worker. One of the patriotic reasons for the relatively short life of the resistance society and the mancomunal was their involvement in strike actions. Regimul comunist n Romnia Documents. Amongst the most Important were the economic dif- ficulties facing the country and the activities of A”, irre Cerda’s right-wing opponents who controlled Congress unt1l Narch patriotkco who used all the means at their disposal to frustrate the now regime.

Although the PCOh took considerable satisfactton in dumbfounding its enemies and rivals by not proceeding to a dramatic revision of its policies in response to international events, its very inaction in that diroctton was a product of Comintern policy -a fnct which the PCOhq to give it its dueg made no attempt to dispuise.

In particular, he claimed that the policy of electoral pacting had worked to the advantage of the exploiting classes and that the national leadership was bourgeois, had no knowledge of the doctrinal and material needs of the people and showed no concern to carry out propaganda activities or create a definite party press. The nitrate industry stimulated the development of ancillary industries and services to satisfy its own needs and contributed to an expansion of the internal market by paying wages to large numbers of workers.

Indeedq shortly after Alessandri came to officeg he was locked into a bitter confrontation with Con- gress -a situation which was tenninated only by the mili- tary aolpe of September In May Social- ist deputy-elect Oscar Baeza was expelled from the PS9 according to his own account because he was an advocate of the Partido 11nicoq and he was promptly incorporated into the PCCh.


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Finally, I should like to thank the Foreign Area Fellowship Program and the Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London, for the financial support which made the preparation of this thesis possible.

Although the P59 like the P had its frentistas and anti-frentistas most of the Socialist leaders were never more than luke- warm towards the Popular Front. Thusq Chamudess who had been recruited into the Peruvian Communist Party by Ravines when a student in Lima and who had eventually become an enthusiastic adherent to the new political line brought to Chile by Ravinesq may have been purged, in part at leastq because the ruling group on the CC wished to repay the indignities which Ravines had heaped upon them by getting rid of one of his protep,; s.

While the PR and the PS took the lion’s share and while even small frentista parties like the Radical Socialists and the Democrats sometimes enjoyed cabi- net officel the PCCh was given only three posts of any signi- ficance at all. Although the POS was founded independently in Tarapac, Santiago and Puntas Arenas in mid, it was not until that these groups celebrated their first National Congress and created a national organisation. This absence of social amenities and cultural and education facilities had marked effects on the POS’s activities.

In Santiagog howeverg some attempt was made to place party work on a more urofessional footing by appointing permanent commissions to deal with such aspects of party activity as trade union af- fairsq financeg press and propaganda.

Furthermore, their training as newspapermen permitted the movement of these early party functionaries from one part of the country to another as the needs of the party dictated. At times the PO demonstrated against specific events abroad – asp for example, in when 2, workers in Iquique gathered to protest against Carranza’s treatment of strikers in Mexico City. Its first effort in this direc- tion was to help create a Camara del Trabajo in Iquique – a form of organisation which had been influential in the early development of the Italian trade union movement.