A Survey on Cluster Head Selection in CGSR Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network. Article (PDF Available) · January with Reads. This paper surveys the routing protocols forAd Hoc mobile wireless Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) [Chiang97]uses as basis. The CGSR lies under table driven or proactive protocol based on routing to deal with this problem we have used PSO for choosing cluster-head in CGSR.

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Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members.

Through the law of cosines, there exists where. So node 1 can send data packet to node 5 relayed by the cluster head i. When a proyocol, including new coming or dissociated from other clusters, wants to join a cluster, it should send RTJ to a cluster head, and the cluster head will send a ATJ message back only if the requesting node is allowed to join.

Selection of cluster-head using PSO in CGSR protocol – Semantic Scholar

References Publications referenced by this paper. Correspondingly, the coordinates of node are and. This is because the more the nodes participate in the network communication, the more the bandwidth will be consumed, and hence more congestion will take place, so the average end-to-end delay will increase substantially.

Thus, it will take little time to communicate with each other. Namely, at first, the source sends a REQ request message to its attached cluster head and then the cluster head will broadcast this REQ to its adjacent protocop head through gateway nodes, and the process will continue cvsr the REQ arrives at the cluster which belongs to the destination node.

Finally, the cluster head including the destination sends a REP responding message back along the discovered path. Note that the vgsr head in the discovered path will transfer the REP along the local shortest route. View at Google Scholar J.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any protodol, provided the original work is properly cited.

Mathematical Problems in Engineering

For example, in Figure 6source node 1 has an original route to destination 10 i. ZRP Zone Routing Protocol [ 11 ] is typical hybrid routing, which groups nodes into geographic zones. Some have been proposed in literatures [ 17 — 20 ], and most of them are to satisfy the specific demands, such as the lowest ID cluster and the highest connectivity.


Namely, cluster head 3 takes the intercluster strategy to build link with cluster head 7 through gateway pritocol 11 and 6. In HCA-R, unless necessary, it will not activate the routing update process as far as possible to avoid additional expenses in both intracluster and intercluster communication and route maintenance phrase. The analysis of Figure 1 b is similar to Figure 1 aso where the definition of and is the same as 1,and.

The ZHLS network is protoccol into nonoverlapping zones, and aggregating nodes into zones conceals the detail of the network topology. View at Google Scholar M. And the conclusion in [ 24 ] reveals that frequent cluster changing consumes lots of network resources and highly overlapped clusters decrease the efficiency prorocol hierarchical structure. The Cggsr algorithm used for the clustering initialization is described in Figure 2. We assume that the velocity and direction of nodes and are not changing during.

In order to utilize the network resources efficiently, HCA-R absorbs the quintessence of ZRP to use proactive strategy between nodes within individual clusters and reactive strategy between clusters, not like CBRP to use on-demand strategy between nodes of both intracluster and intercluster communication to purely decrease the routing overhead and HSR, CGSR to use table-driven strategy to communicate in both intra- and interzone to decrease average end-to-end delay but increase the cost of routing overhead unwillingly.

Selection of cluster-head using PSO in CGSR protocol

For example, in Protcool 4source node 1 and destination 5 are in the same cluster. And the cluster members of the attached cluster broadcast cluster member node ID, cluster IDs messages back to the cluster head periodically, where the node ID is the identifier of the broadcasting node, and cluster ID is the list of clusters of which the node is a member.

A mobile ad hoc network MANET [ 12 ] is a wireless communication network, cgar which nodes use peer-to-peer packets transmission and multihop routes to communication. When choosing cluster heads, our clustering algorithm absorbs the quintessence of some clustering algorithms i.


And this mechanism is very helpful to reduce the route reestablishing expenses and end-to-end delay.

The experiments and analysis are given in Section 4. Thus, node 1 gets the shortest route to node 9 i. However, its location management is closely tied with the network hierarchical topology, which makes the location updating and location finding quite complex. In this paper, we usually consider one-hop clusters, besides the only scenario; namely, when the cluster guest appears, in this gcsr, the guest node is two hops away from the cluster head.

Due to the frequent topology detection, an efficient and effective method of route maintenance in response to underlying network topology change is imperative because without routes validity the performance of a routing scheme in a dynamic, mobile environment is affected even adversely.

Mathematical Problems in Engineering. From Figure 12it can be prktocol that the HCA-R protocol outperforms others as it uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters and hence restricts the flooding area effectively. Upon receiving, it will compare the cost metric with itself, and the bigger one will be elected as a cluster head.

It is due to prptocol bigger speed leading to more frequent topology changes and hence more broken links or unreachable downstream nodes appear. All the nodes in such a cluster are within the range of the cluster head, but not necessarily within range of each other. It is obvious that more nodes will lead to bigger average end-to-end delay. In this way, it can reduce the cluster head change rate, and the ripple effects caused by reclustering can be ignored.

The simulation parameters are shown in Table 1. Topics Discussed in Portocol Paper. Although this method can decrease the possibility of reclustering, but it cannot ensure the elected cluster head is logically centric and more profitable to play the cluster head role and hence to increase the whole network performance.