shrinking generator is proposed. Key words: Stream cipher, pseudorandom sequence, linear complexity,. Geffe’s generator, Geffe’s shrinking. Geffe generator [5] is a non-linear random binary key sequence generator which consists of three (LFSRs) and a nonlinear combiner. Here, we. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Cryptanalysis of Geffe Generator Using Genetic Algorithm | The use of basic crypto-primitives or building blocks has a vital role.

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This page was last edited on 3 Juneat Higher order correlation attacks can be more powerful than single order correlation attacks, however this effect is subject to a “law of limiting returns”. Understanding the calculation of cost is relatively straightforward: We can define third order correlations and so on in the obvious way. Let’s check this quickly: For any given key in the keyspace, we may quickly generate the first 32 bits of LFSR-3’s output and compare these to our recovered 32 bits of the entire generator’s output.

Correlation attacks are perhaps best explained via example. The table below shows a measure of the computational cost for various attacks on a keystream generator consisting of eight 8-bit LFSRs combined by a single Boolean function.

This article’s tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. Stream ciphers convert plaintext to ciphertext one bit at a time and are often constructed using two or more LFSRs.

Correlation attack

Collision attack Preimage attack Birthday attack Brute-force attack Rainbow table Side-channel attack Length extension attack. This is a weakness we may exploit as follows:. While higher order correlations lead to more powerful attacks, they are also more difficult to find, as the space of available Boolean functions to correlate against the generator output increases as the number of arguments to the function does. As a rule, the weaker the correlation between an individual register and the generator output, the more known plaintext is required to find that register’s key with a high degree of confidence.


The difference with one-time pad is that stream ciphers use an genetator or a function to generate a pseudorandom stream, named keystreamof the length of the plaintext. However, it is important to note that high correlation immunity is a necessary but not sufficient condition gffe a Boolean function to be appropriate for use in a keystream generator.

If we had, say, a megabyte of known plaintext, the situation would be substantially different. We cannot use this to brute force LFSR-1 independently of the others: In cryptographycorrelation attacks are a class of known plaintext attacks for breaking stream ciphers whose keystream is generated by combining the output of several linear feedback shift gennerator called Gefte for the rest of this article using a Boolean function.

Thus we may not be able to find the key for that LFSR uniquely and with certainty. This is particularly salient in the case of LFSRs whose correlation with the generator is not especially strong; for small enough correlations it is certainly geerator outside the realm of possibility that an incorrectly guessed key will also lead to LFSR output that agrees with the desired number of bits of the generator output.

So let’s have a look at this alternating step generator: In practice it may be difficult to find a function which achieves this without sacrificing other design criteria, e. It is simply essential to consider susceptibility to correlation attacks when designing stream ciphers of this type.

Correlation attack – Wikipedia

Thus we say that LFSR-3 is correlated with the generator. Readers with a background in probability theory should genetator able to see easily how to formalise this argument and obtain estimates of the length of known plaintext required for a given correlation using the binomial distribution. RC4 block ciphers in stream mode ChaCha. Compared to the cost of launching a brute force attack on the entire system, with complexity 2 32this represents an attack effort saving factor of just underwhich is substantial.

For example, a Boolean function which has no first order or second order correlations but which does have a third order correlation exhibits 2nd generrator correlation immunity. The Geffe generator Modern stream ciphers are inspired from one-time pad.


If we have guessed incorrectly, we should expect roughly half, or 16, of the first 32 bits of these two sequences to match. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This also follows from the fact that any such function can be written using a Reed-Muller basis as a combination of XORs of the input functions.

An incorrect key may generate LFSR output that agrees with more than kilobytes of the generator output, but not likely to generate output that agrees with as much as kilobytes of the generator output like a correctly guessed key would. See Wikipedia’s guide to writing better articles for suggestions. You can help by adding to it. It is possible to define higher order correlations in addition to these. If you want the generator to have good statistical properties and be quite secured, the length of the three primitive polynomial must be relatively prime pairwise and also the length of all LFSRs should be at least bits.

Initialization vector Mode of operation Padding.

History of cryptography Cryptanalysis Outline of cryptography. This research has uncovered links between correlation immune Boolean functions and error correcting codes.

In this sense, correlation attacks can be considered divide and conquer algorithms. When R1 is clocked, if its output is 1 then R2 is clocked and its ouput is XORed with the previous state of R3 which has not been clocked.

For instance, it may be possible that while a given Boolean function has no strong correlations with any of the individual registers it combines, a significant correlation may exist between some Boolean function of two of the registers, e.